The Paris Agreement (2015) recognizes the importance of concentrated efforts at national, sub-national and non-state level in expanding the adaptation action for combating the challenges of climate change. Coordinating the actions of different actors from the country results in more realistic and comprehensive adaptation objectives, as well as in an effective planning policy to achieve these objectives. It is also a growing necessity to communicate to the citizens of the country as well as to the international community the results of the actions undertaken in order to achieve the objectives of the Defined National Contributions (2016) on the adaptation component.
Integrating adaptation into sector-level planning of the national economy is considered critical for the successful adaptation on medium and long term. During the consultation process, of the climate change adaptation planning of the Republic of Moldova, through a series of public events (conferences, workshops, round tables, bilateral meetings), the participating stakeholders, especially the decision-makers, expressed their opinion that, at the current state of the country's socio-economic development, the most appropriate approach to adaptation and to minimizing climate change vulnerabilities would be sector-based. This approach was also taken into account in the development of the Moldova's Climate Change Adaptation Strategy (2014) and its Action Plan. Therefore, in the planning of adaptation, the sectoral approach was the one that prevailed.
At the same time, an emerging necessity for appropriate coordination of cross-sectoral actions was identified between the key sectors: water resources, agriculture, forestry, health, energy, transport, sectors that are strongly exposed to climatic factors. Typically, the planning process of the Republic of Moldova has a sectoral approach based on sectoral activities. But climate change is already felt by the Republic of Moldova through a cross-sectoral impact and the sectors are confronted with limited resources, so planning and implementing adaptation requires a comprehensive and integrated approach, coordinated between sectors. Cross-sectoral coordination will help identify related adaptation opportunities, especially between key sectors such as water resources - food security - energy and understanding their prospects in adapting the country to climate change.
The need for an agency with influence in governmental and non-governmental organizations has been identified as a way to ensure the coordination of planning the actions at multiple levels of governance, to support the process of integrated adaptation planning and to help stimulate effective actions within sectors.
The challenge of climate change requires a concentrated effort not only at national and sectoral level, but also from a diverse range of sub-national and non-governmental actors such as municipalities, NGOs, women's associations, the private sector, businesses. Therefore, non-state and sub-national actors need to be fully integrated into national vision and need to be well coordinated with national and sectoral adaptation policies. For these reasons, although the sector-based approach is perceived as the main one, sub-sectoral, district, community levels have been integrated and applied during the planning and implementation of adaptation actions in the Republic of Moldova.
In order to comply systematically with the needs and requirements of the different levels of governance required by the climate challenges, the Climate Change Adaptation Coordination Mechanism (CCACM) was developed as a multi-sectoral and multi-stakeholder mechanism for maintaining a sustainable institutional arrangement in the purpose of planning and implementing climate change adaptation in Moldova, chaired by the National Commission on Climate Change (NCCC).
In its effort to establish an integrated process of the National Adaptation Plan (NAP) at the national level and Sectoral Adaptation Plan (SAP) at the sectoral level, The Republic of Moldova aligned the CCACM functionality to the NAP and SAP planning cycle. Through the Government Decision (x) dedicated to the establishment of the CCACM, the competent ministries have the task of developing an enabling environment in order to implement adaptation actions in the related sector every four years, connected to the periodic planning cycles of the sectors or to integrate adaptation into the sustainable development planning of the sectors. Both approaches lead to the drafting of a sectoral adaptation plan (SAP). Within the SAPs, the sectors will set objectives and adaptation targets for that particular cycle, which will be achieved by actions taken at cross-sectoral, sectoral and sub-sectoral levels. The adaptation actions included in the SAP will be anticipated by extensive stakeholder consultations, during which the measures to be implemented throughout the cycle will be prioritized, as well as the implemented responsibilities will be established. The budgeting of adaptation measures will be allocated from the sector budget, but also with the support of the private sector, as well as from the external donors and the development partners.
As the process of climate change adaptation planning and implementation progresses, there is a need to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of policies and the achievement of objectives and targets set out at country and sectoral level. The adaptation process requires an evaluation system of the results of the undertaken measures, as well as the real status of the system adaptation, a subsystem that must reduce vulnerability and increase system resilience and body resistance.